In the United States National Park System alone there are more than 84 million acres (340,000 square kilometers) of preserved woods, deserts, mountains and other wilderness, so it's no surprise that in the past 100 years there have been a number of cases of hikers going missing [source: National Park Service]. Many of those who vanished were young children and inexperienced hikers, but some were healthy and seasoned outdoorspeople. But is there more to these disappearances than just kids wandering off, or hikers becoming disoriented?
What could cause someone to seemingly vanish into thin air? There are two approaches people take to explaining these mysterious disappearances: earthly and supernatural. Most hiking experts would say that these missing hikers made common mistakes like taking on more than they could handle or failing to time their turnback to beat the sunset [source: Stevenson]. The disappearances have become a focus for urban legend, online message boards and non-fiction books; "Missing 411" author David Paulides thinks something more intriguing is afoot. His book examines more than 1,100 cases of people mysteriously vanishing from United States parks [source: Hiltner].
Let's be honest – although it might be fun to imagine monsters or something spookier, no proof for any supernatural disappearance has ever been provided. But there have definitely been some unexplained disappearances both in the United States and abroad - in formal, federal government-run National Parks as well as in related spaces like National Forests, recreation areas, state parks and more. These are 10 of the most fascinating; let's start in the early 20th century and move up to the present.
Bessie and Glen Hyde, 1928
Bessie and Glen Hyde were honeymooning in northern Arizona at the Grand Canyon when they vanished. They were traveling down the Colorado River by scow in October of 1928 and planned to boat through the Grand Canyon. Bessie would have been the first woman ever to do so successfully [source: Japenga].
Glen had run tough rivers before, but Bessie was a boating newbie. The couple ran across other boaters a few weeks before their disappearance who said they got the feeling that Bessie wanted to turn back, but Glen was pushing her on. If they completed the trip successfully, they could go on a paid lecture tour. So this trip was more than just fun – there was money at stake [source: Japenga].
Cut to several months later: The Hydes' boat was discovered that winter, seemingly undisturbed. It was upright and full of supplies, but the couple was gone. There are many theories about what happened to the Hydes. Did they disembark and try a too-difficult side hike? Did they have an argument that turned violent? Or were they abducted? There are conflicting reports about what happened to the Hydes, and more than one Bessie Hyde sighting in the years that followed [source: Japenga].
Alfred Beilhartz, 1938
Five-year-old Alfred Beilhartz is the first recorded drowning in Colorado's Rocky Mountain National Park, though whether Beilhartz actually drowned is controversial [source: Vistaramic Journeys]. He was camping in the park with his family over the July Fourth weekend when he disappeared near the Roaring and Fall Rivers.
Beilhartz had gone with his dad to bathe in the river, and from there he decided to join two family friends at a spot about 500 feet (150 meters) upstream of where he and his father entered the river. When everyone returned to camp, they realized that Beilhart was missing. A search began immediately, expanding to more than 100 Civilian Conservation Corps members within 45 minutes, but there was barely any sign of Beilhart anywhere [source: Evans].
A day after he disappeared, a couple hiking about 6 miles (9.6 kilometers) away from Beilhartz's campsite reported seeing a boy who looked like Alfred sitting in an area called The Devil's Nest [source: Vistaramic Journeys]. By the time authorities arrived, though, the boy was gone.
The search went on for 10 days and included 150 men plus bloodhounds, though the size of the search party had dwindled to a dozen by the end of the eighth day [source: Evans]. Park rangers chalked his disappearance up to drowning.
Katherine Van Alst, 1946
Eight-year-old Katherine Van Alst disappeared from Devil's Den State Park, near Arkansas' Ozark National Forest, where she and her family were camping. Van Alst apparently was playing with her brothers when she wandered off and got lost, and what makes her disappearance remarkable is that when she was found after six days wandering the woods, she was eerily calm.
University of Arkansas student Porter Chadwick was part of the search party that found Van Alst. He told The Pittsburgh Press that when he found her, she walked stoically out of a cave and just said, "Here I am." Many other hikers have gotten lost in that part of the Ozarks and not been as lucky as Van Alst. A grown woman was lost there for 17 days and died just 50 yards (46 meters) from the road [source: Vistaramic Journeys].
A fan of David Paulides' books has taken several 360 degree panoramic shots of a few locations where people have mysteriously vanished, and you can see the area where Van Alst went missing here. The person who compiled these panoramas suspects abduction. In the shot, you can see places where an attacker, whether human or animal, may have hidden in thick brush or behind rock outcroppings. If it was indeed an abductor, was it a someone or a something lurking in Devil's Den?
Paula Welden, 1946
There's an area in Green Mountain National Forest near Glastenbury Mountain and Vermont's Long Trail that believers in the paranormal call Bennington Triangle. The area got this name because of a handful of mysterious disappearances which occurred between 1945 and 1950. Paranormal author Joseph A. Citro coined the term, because of the supposedly supernatural circumstances surrounding these vanishings [source: The Bennington Triangle]. Paula Welden was the second person to go missing in that area of Green Mountain National Forest during this period.
Eighteen-year-old Welden was a college student who set out on the Long Trail in December 1946. She was dressed for walking and not a long hike, wearing jeans, a coat, and sneakers. Her attire implied that she planned to return before dark, when temperatures were supposed to dip below freezing. Welden told her roommate that she was "taking a long walk," and she never returned [source: Robinson].
Several people spotted her as she hitchhiked her way to the trail and walked to the trailhead [source: Robinson]. When Welden didn't come back by dark, her roommate let the school know, and the search began. Classes were suspended so students could help with the search. The process was disorganized at first, until Welden's father called in favors from police in two surrounding states. Unfortunately, the search didn't pan out, and frustrated family and friends had their own theories about what happened to her [source: Robinson].
Did Welden run off with a boyfriend? Was she abducted, or commit suicide? Or did she die of exposure because of her inappropriate attire? No one has discovered her body, so her disappearance remains a mystery. There's a rumor that this area of the Long Trail is home to a creature called the Bennington Monster. Could this sasquatch-like animal have something to do with the disappearance [source: The Bennington Triangle]?
Regardless of whether people think these disappearances are natural or supernatural in nature, the cases do have a few things in common: the missing tended to be alone when they disappeared or separated from their group by at least 50 yards. Bad weather and chaotic, disorganized searches are also a running theme in these cases. You can believe that these were accidents, abductions, or something even more sinister, but regardless there are lessons in these stories about how to stay safer when you're out in the woods.
Larry Jeffrey, 1966
Larry Jeffrey disappeared near the peak of 12,000-foot (3,650-meter) Mount Charleston in Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, just a short drive from Las Vegas. The search began immediately after the boy wandered away from his brothers, and within days the National Guard and a team of bloodhounds had joined the search [source: Associated Press].
In a TV interview, David Paulides told reporter George Knapp, who also hosts the "Coast to Coast AM" radio show, that there were no predators afoot that day, and since the area they were in was pretty secluded, it's easy to rule out an abduction by car. "This boy just walked into oblivion," Paulides said.
When Jeffrey disappeared, he was wearing light clothing, and authorities were doubtful that he could survive the cold temperatures at night. Searchers found and lost the trail a few times, and they discovered evidence that the boy had been eating insects and foraged berries along the way [source: Henderson Home News]. Overall, around 1,000 people searched for 16 days but never found him [source: Knapp].
Dennis Martin, 1969
Dennis Martin was on a camping trip near the Tennessee-North Carolina state line with his family in the summer of 1969. It was an annual Father's Day tradition – all of the men in the Martin family headed to Smoky Mountain National Park to camp and hike [source: Matheny.
Dennis and his brothers had planned a prank on the adults; they were each going to jump out on different sides of the campsite to scare them. It's a pretty typical prank that should have ended with some startled shouts and then a lot of laughter. The laughter ended quickly, though, when they realized that Dennis was missing.
Family, park rangers, and other hikers spread out to search for Dennis almost immediately, but he was nowhere to be found [source: Vistaramic Journeys. That evening, there was heavy rainfall, which is bad news when you're trying to track a missing little boy.
The search for Martin became the largest in National Park Service history. One of the people searching was Park Ranger Dwight McCarter, who had successfully tracked down hundreds of missing persons, including young children. McCarter was a seasoned tracker, and he was struck by the complete lack of any sort of tracks. Dennis seemed to have disappeared completely, leaving no trace at all. His disappearance is still a mystery.
One possible lead that searchers didn't follow was a report from another family the evening that the boy went missing. The Key family allegedly heard a scream and then saw a "bear-man" with something slung over its shoulder that looked like it could be a small child [source: Vistaramic Journeys]. We'll never know whether this was related to Martin's disappearance.
Douglas Legg, 1971
Douglas Legg and some of his family was heading out for a hike in the Adirondack Forest Preserve's Santanoni Preserve when his uncle spotted poison ivy and told Legg to put on long pants to protect himself. The family's cabin was a short, straight shot from where they were, but Legg never returned.
Unlike a lot of the kids who have gone missing in national parks, Legg was very familiar with these woods. His family owned the cabin where they were staying and described Legg as a "mini- woodsman," because they all hiked there together so often. Legg's disappearance sparked one of the southern Adirondacks' largest search and rescue missions, with more than 600 people searching the woods, but like David Gonzales, Legg left no trail [source: Lehman].
Unlike in the Gonzales case, though, rescuers used dogs in their search. Some accounts describe dogs following Legg's scent over a 30-mile (48 kilometers) trail through difficult terrain [source: Vistaramic Journeys]. How could a young child have traveled alone for such a distance? Some searchers reported seeing bear-like tracks near the site. While black bears do drag their prey to cover, dragging someone 30 miles over difficult terrain seems unusual [source: Hygnstrom].
The family became desperate and began suspecting each other and even their friends of abducting Legg, but the police were certain that the "mini-woodsman" had simply gotten lost. He was never found.
John Devine, 1997
According to Peninsula Daily News, Olympic National Park in northern Washington state has a feature that's not as majestic as its mountain views. At least four hikers have mysteriously disappeared from the area in the past 25 years, one of whom was 73-year-old John Devine [source: Seabury]. In 1997, Devine planned to hike into the park from Mount Baldy.
The trail is a tough 24 miles (39 kilometers), and though Devine was elderly, he was also an experienced long-distance hiker. Devine was camping with his friend Greg Balzer; they split up on the day that Devine went missing. Balzer went off to hunt while Devine took off on a day hike [source:Macdonald]. Devine never returned.
The fruitless search for Devine lasted a full week until a rescue helicopter crash killed three people and injured five others. By that time, weather conditions had deteriorated, making the chances of finding Devine slim [source: Cavanagh]. Friends and family said that Devine wouldn't want to put people in danger on his behalf, and the search was called off.
The search helicopter's crash is as mysterious as Devine's disappearance. Before takeoff, the pilot used a hand signal indicating that he was going to wait five minutes for conditions to improve before attempting it. A moment later, the helicopter departed vertically without warning and crashed into the side of the mountain [source: Shimanski].
David Gonzales, 2004
At 8 a.m. on a July day in 2004, David Gonzales asked his mother if he could have the car keys. There was a box of cookies in the car, and he wanted a treat. The car was only 50 yards (46 meters) away, and his mother watched him as he walked to the parking lot near their Big Bear Lake campsite in Northern California's San Bernadino National Forest [source: Vistaramic Journeys]. She turned her back for a second, and when she looked around again, Gonzales was gone.
His mother reported that she heard no sound at all when her back was turned, though she did see a beige truck speeding out of the campground around the time that her son went missing. Since there were no signs of abduction, authorities did not pursue that lead [source: Associated Press].
The cookies that Gonzales went to get were still in his family's locked van, so he never made it to the car. Rescue teams in San Bernardino County scoured the woods for Gonzales. They found no signs of struggle or of the boy. The search went on for nine days, but rescuers never found him alive.
Almost a year later, hikers stumbled upon the boy's remains about a mile from his family's campsite [source: Brooks]. Authorities chalked this up to a mountain lion attack, but how could a mountain lion have silently dragged a 9-year-old boy a mile without leaving any blood or signs of struggle?
Prabhdeep Srawn, 2013
Prabhdeep Srawn was a 25-year-old Canadian army reservist who disappeared from Australia's Kosciuszko National Park, located in the southeastern state of New South Wales. Srawn was studying abroad in Australia in May 2013, when he decided to take a 1,700 mile (2,700 kilometer) road trip from the Gold Coast to Melbourne. Srawn rented a van, drove to the park's Charlotte Pass in the Snowy Mountains, and no one has seen him since [source: French].
The search for Srawn began when the rental company discovered that the van wasn't returned. Srawn hadn't told anyone what route or side hikes he was planning, and the search may have started days or even a week after he went missing, since it was the rental company that first reported the disappearance. Searchers figured out his hike plans by looking at the search history on a laptop they recovered from his van [source: ]Mcllroy].
Srawn's family hired private searchers after Australian authorities called off their search after only two weeks. The investigators used tower data from Srawn's phone and a trained dog to track his trail to a treacherous area called the Western Fall Wilderness [source: French]. Just one day before his van was due back to the rental agency, Srawn embarked on a difficult and time-consuming hike in snowy weather. Why would a trained military reservist make a choice like that? Despite a private search that went on for over a year, Srawn's body has never been recovered.
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Author's Note: 10 Mysterious Disappearances in National Parks
My college roommate and I once went hiking on Kennesaw Mountain in North Georgia, and we managed to completely lose the trail. We were scrambling over rocks trying to find our way back to the trail and our car, and it was definitely creepy being two women lost and alone in the woods. As we rounded a bend, a man who said he lived on the mountain approached us. Luckily, he turned out to be just a helpful hiker, and he showed us a quick route back to the trailhead. We were maybe a mile from our car at most and had basically been hiking in circles. Before that happened, I might have thought it was crazy that someone could get lost so close to their campsite or fellow hikers, but I can tell you from that experience that the woods can be incredibly disorienting. If it weren't for the fellow that helped us, who knows how long my friend and I would have wandered on the mountain?
- Associated Press. "Calif. Calls off Search for Missing Boy." USA Today. August 9, 2004. (June 23, 2015) http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2004-08-09-missing-boy_x.htm Associated Press. "Mountain Areas Hold Fate of 2 Lost Youths in West." June 2, 1966. (July 2, 2015) https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1314&dat=19660602&id=XTlWAAAAIBAJ&sjid=xugDAAAAIBAJ&pg=7265,389446&hl=en
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- Bowers, Judi. "No Leads in Search for Boy Missing Since July." Big Bear Grizzly. September 29, 2004. (August 23, 2015) http://www.bigbeargrizzly.net/news/no-leads-in-search-for-boy-missing-since-july/article_b9fe6636-dc93-57db-857a-236ed2fdef2c.html
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- Broom, Jack. "Search Ends for Missing Hiker – Experts Arrive to Investigate Searchers' Chopper Crash." The Seattle Times. September 14, 1997. (June 25, 2015). http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=19970914&slug=2560348
- Charley Project. "Christopher Carlton Tompkins." 2002. (June 24, 2015) http://www.charleyproject.org/cases/t/thompkins_christopher.html
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- Henderson Home News. "Hope Fades for Larry Jeffrey." June 7, 1966. (July 2, 2015) http://digitalcollections.mypubliclibrary.com/digital/11/1627/1/1.pdf
- Hiltner, Nita. "Secret Vanishings in America's National Parks." DCX Political. June 30, 2014. (June 23, 2015) http://dcxposed.com/2014/04/27/secret-vanishings-americas-national-parks/
- Hygnstrom, Scott E. "Black Bears." Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management. (July 2, 2015) http://icwdm.org/handbook/carnivor/black_bears.asp
- Japenga, Ann. "What Really Happened to Bessie and Glen?" Los Angeles Times. June 29, 2001. (June 23, 2015) http://articles.latimes.com/2001/jun/29/news/cl-16386/
- Knapp, George. "I-Team Missing Persons Mysteries." 8 News Now. June 26, 2012 (July 2, 2015) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8msMKW4fZDE&feature=youtu.be
- Lehman, John. "40 Years Later, Case of Missing Boy an Adirondacks Mystery." PostStar.com. July 15, 2011. (June 24, 2015) http://poststar.com/news/local/years-later-case-of-missing-boy-remains-an-adirondacks-mystery/article_8a42bf94-af20-11e0-835c-001cc4c03286.html
- Macdonald, Sally. "Friends Say Hiker Wouldn't Have Wanted Others at Risk – Missing Man Described as 'Five Star Neighbor, Wonderful Person.'" The Seattle Times. September 14, 1997. (June 25, 2015) http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=19970914&slug=2560350
- Matheny, Jim. "Dennis Martin: Lost Boy a 45-Year Smoky Mountain Mystery." WBIR. May 21, 2014. (June 23, 2015) http://www.wbir.com/story/news/local/2014/05/22/dennis-martin-missing-45-years/9405607/
- Mcllroy, Tom. "Coroner Holds Inquest into Disappearance of Canadian Hiker Prabhdeep Srawn in the Kosciuszko National Park." The Canberra Times. May 27, 2015. (June 25, 2015) http://www.canberratimes.com.au/act-news/coroner-holds-inquest-into-disappearance-of-canadian-hiker-prabhdeep-srawn-in-the-kosciuszko-national-park-20150527-gh9zjw.html
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- Robinson, Rebecca. "After 60 Years, Student's Fate Remains a Legendary Mystery." Bennington Banner. December 1, 2006. (June 26, 2015) http://www.benningtonbanner.com/localnews/ci_4753281
- Seabury, Blair Jr. "Missing Hiker Not First to Disappear Inside Olympic National Park." Peninsula Daily News. September 13, 2013. (June 25, 2015) http://www.peninsuladailynews.com/article/20130913/NEWS/309139971
- Shimanski, Charley. "Accidents in Mountain Rescue Operations." Mountain Rescue Association. 2008. (June 25, 2015) http://www.montereysar.org/SARMembersDocs/AMRO_rev08.pdf
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- "Spring Mountains National Recreation Area." USDA Forest Service. October 10, 2014. (July 2, 2015) http://www.fs.usda.gov/detail/htnf/about-forest/offices/?cid=fsm9_026952
- Vistaramic Journeys. "Arkansas – Devil's Den State Park." March 2013. (June 23, 2015) http://vistaramicjourneys.com/devils-den-state-park
- Vistaramic Journeys. "California – Big Bear Lake." (June 23, 2015) http://vistaramicjourneys.com/big-bear-lake
- Vistaramic Journeys. "Colorado Rocky Mountains – Fall River." (June 24, 2015) http://vistaramicjourneys.com/rocky-mountains-fall-river
- Vistaramic Journeys. "Georgia – Ellerslie." September 2013. (June 24, 2015) http://vistaramicjourneys.com/ellerslie
- Vistaramic Journeys. "Tennessee – Great Smoky Mountains." December 2013. (June 23, 2015) http://vistaramicjourneys.com/great-smoky-mountains
- Vistaramic Journeys. "New York - Newcomb." (June 24, 2015) http://vistaramicjourneys.com/newcomb