Experiencing the Mississippi River from Great River Road for the first time is a memory few can forget. The awe that many people feel toward this river may come from the power of a flood or the beauty of a golden sunset that reflects off the still winter waters and turns graceful steel bridges into shimmering lines of color.
Looking out over the river, it is almost impossible to comprehend the complex layers of history that have been acted out along its banks. From the large communities of the Hopewell Indian culture (the most complex society in North America that existed from approximately A.D. 700 to 1400) and early French colonial settlements and fortifications to the frightened, cautious, and optimistic eyes of slaves seeking freedom on the Underground Railroad, this corridor has played a role in many of this continent's most dramatic hours. Today 15 percent of the nation's shipping passes through the river's complex system of locks and dams, yet such commercial activity occurs under the spreading wings of the newly thriving American bald eagle.
It is from the Great River Road that most visitors and residents understand and define their relationship with the Mississippi. It is from this road that the historic sites and cultural artifacts of the area can be accessed, from Native American mounds to the Mormon (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) temple. The beautiful Mississippi bluffs tower over the byway as permanent sentinels for the great river. Whether directly along the banks of the river or winding through the vast flood plain miles from the water, the Great River Road links resources, people, and history.
Archaeological Qualities of Great River Road
A little-known treasure trove of archaeological sites, the Illinois Great River Road has several places for visitors to discover pieces of the past. Among the archaeological qualities that can be found along this road are burial mounds of Native Americans that lived along the river. The mounds, many of which were built more than 2,000 years ago, are representative of Native American religious practices and reverence for their ancestors. Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site near East St. Louis and Collinsville has been designated as a United Nations World Heritage Site. Among the most fascinating of the archaeological structures on the Great River Road is Monk's Mound, a 100-foot-tall, four-tiered platform that took 300 years to build.
In addition to Native American sites, many villages on the byway offer a taste of archaeology in their preservation of the not-so-distant past. Many villages, such as Maeystown, Galena, and Nauvoo, are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. These villages often re-create the lifestyles of the first settlers along the Great River Road for visitors who want to know more about the nation's past. With both Native American heritage sites and historic sites of the earliest European settlers, the Great River Road offers opportunities for you to discover America's archaeology all along the way.
Qualities of Great River Road
Some of the first people to settle along the banks of the Mississippi River were Native Americans. These nations were embedded in a culture that held the utmost respect for nature and the resources of the land. Their inextricable connection to the land can be seen in the burial mounds they left behind, as well as in museums and monuments.
Since the habitation of the first cultures in the area, several other cultures have passed through the Illinois Great River Road area, and some have stayed permanently. During the 1800s, the now-historic communities along the Great River Road were settled for reasons that ranged from gold rushes to religious freedom. The people who live in these communities maintain a distinct place on the byway, with their styles of architecture and inventiveness. Today, the culture of the Great River Road embodies the relaxed hometown pace. The towns and villages along the byway offer you a change of scenery and a chance to slow down. These towns are often small and full of rich historical detail that influences cultures even today.
Qualities of Great River Road
As an area that has enraptured American Indians, explorers, and settlers, the Illinois Great River Road holds pieces of the past that are intriguing to today's visitors. Since 1938, the road has been protected and enhanced in order to preserve the scenic and historical qualities found along it. The heritage of the native nations of the Sauk and Fox Indians remains prevalent in many places along the byway.
You can find historic architecture in several of the towns along the road: Nauvoo, Quincy, Alton, Belleville, and Cairo allow you to experience the Great River Road as the settlers of nearly 200 years ago did. These cities all have their share of historic places and buildings that are full of Civil War tales and pioneer stories. As a passage on the Underground Railroad, the river represents a piece of African-American history as well. The river itself holds a story of steamboats chugging up the river. It represents the ingenuity of inventors and engineers in the earliest days of travel. The river is the lifeblood of the area that has drawn so many people to its shores.
Qualities of Great River Road
Among the bluffs and rolling hills of the Illinois Great River Road area, you can observe wildlife and nature at its fullest. The lands surrounding the byway are home to white-tailed deer, wild turkeys, ducks, and geese. Supported by the rich natural resources that abound in the river area, these creatures can be seen throughout the drive. During the fall, the trees along the byway exhibit a beautiful spectrum of color, providing a fringe of brightness along the river. By the time winter sets in, there is a new visitor to the Great River Road. The American bald eagle arrives in late November, and by late December, hundreds of these magnificent birds are roosting in the rocky walls of the bluffs overlooking the river. Travelers come from miles around to watch them dive and soar in the air above the bluffs.
All along the banks and bluffs of the river, you will enjoy many interesting sights. At one point on the Illinois Great River Road, you will see a formation known as Tower Rock. This formation is an isolated mass of limestone that divides the river in half. In the areas surrounding the river, you'll also find lakes, wetlands, and swamps that provide their own style of natural beauty.
Qualities of Great River Road
On and around the river, you have places to go and different ways to get there. Hikers and bikers find riverside trails attractive, while other travelers may prefer to enjoy a pleasant afternoon on a riverboat. Ferries, canoes, and even old-fashioned steamboats give you a closer view of the greatest river in the nation. To see more of the communities on the byway, you may enjoy a trolley tour or a park area, as well as museums and historical buildings. Museums and monuments to the past are sprinkled along the road to give you a sense of what came before on the Great River Road.
Other forms of fun can be found on the byway as well. More than 75 golf courses help you track your progress along the byway by greens. Travelers who would like to test their luck can try a riverboat casino. Communities all along the byway offer numerous stops for antique shoppers who are looking for a piece of Illinois' past to take home with them, and if antiques aren't enough, plenty of novelty shops and gift shops abound. For the hungry traveler, many restaurants along the byway are sure to suit your fancy. Entertainment is an element of the byway's recreational offerings, too. Many towns host musicals, dinner shows, and old-fashioned theater experiences.
Chances to enjoy the outdoors along the Great River Road come often. In addition to the Shawnee National Forest, 29 state recreation and/or conservation areas are available along the route of the Great River Road. The Mississippi Palisades State Park and National Landmark offers phenomenal views to and from the bluffs (palisades) along the Mississippi River. The facilities for tent and trailer camping, fishing, cross-country skiing, and ice fishing are top notch.
The Big River State Forest is a 2,900-acre facility dedicated to demonstrating sound forestry practices. Firebreaks and a fire tower afford breathtaking views and hikes. Nearby, camping, hiking, and river and lake fishing are available at Delabar State Park. In the south, Horseshoe Lake Conservation Area is one of the loveliest places to hike, camp, hunt, and boat. Horseshoe Lake is a quiet, shallow lake lined with cypress and tupelo gum and wild lotus. You can find places for bird-watching and exploring wetlands, and canoeing along the river is a widely recognized source of recreation all along the byway.
Find more useful information related to Illinois' Great River Road:
- Illinois Scenic Drives: Great River Road is just one of the scenic byways in Illinois. Check out the others.
- Galena, Moline, Quincy, Cairo: Find out what there is to do in these cities along Great River Road.
- Scenic Drives: Are you interested in scenic drives beyond Illinois? Here are more than 100 scenic drives throughout the United States.
- How to Drive Economically: Fuel economy is a major concern when you're on a driving trip. Learn how to get better gas mileage.