Petra wasn't exactly a lost city. But by the early 1800s only the Bedouin herdsmen of the desert in what is now Jordan visited this ancient capital of the Nabataeans. To the world at large, its location was a mystery. The fabled city was said to lie concealed in a gorge somewhere between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba -- but maps were as hazy as the blowing sands.

Then in 1812, Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt disguised himself as "Ibrahim ibn Abd Allah," a bearded, turban-wearing, Arabic-speaking pilgrim. So convincing was his masquerade that no one stopped him from entering Petra, the "city in the rock," which no outsider had seen since the 12th century.

Famous Landmarks Image Gallery

The tombs ad temples of Petra, carved out of the cliffs themselves, appear suddenly.
The tombs and temples of Petra, carved
out of the cliffs themselves, appear
suddenly from a red-rock mountain.
See more pictures of famous landmarks.

He found a city whose golden age had begun in the second century B.C., its prosperity stemming from expansive trade. Commerce brought cross-pollination from many other cultures and influenced Petra's architecture, which blended Arabic traditions with Hellenistic and Egyptian styles to create astonishing tombs, temples, and theaters -- all carved into cliffs of Nubian sandstone.

In the first century A.D., Rome took control of Petra, and the Nabataeans' territory soon yielded much of the Empire's profits. Six centuries later, earthquakes hit the city, and it was eventually abandoned.

The city is approached through a snaking mountain fissure, varying from 16 to 650 feet deep. After nearly a mile, the passage suddenly opens to reveal one of the world's most dramatic sights, al-Khazneh, the Treasury, thought to have been the tomb of a Nabataean king. Its facade -- some 100 feet wide and 140 feet high -- is embellished with soaring columns and statues of gods, mythological figures, and animals. Carved into the soft rock, the building takes on an otherworldly appearance when the sun strikes it, a rose glow that seems to come from within the rock itself.

The route into Petra next opens on a broad canyon where the Nabataeans built the bulk of their hidden city. The city includes a 7,000-seat theater, temples, and more royal tombs, all carved in rose-colored rock. Over everything hangs a hush, the silence of a lost world.

Here are links to dozens of other world-famous landmarks:

Abu Simbel, Egypt Eiffel Tower, France The Leaning Tower of Pisa, Italy Roman and Georgian Bath, England
The Alhambra, Spain Ellora Caves, India Machu Picchu, Peru St. Mark’s Basilica, Italy
Angkor Wat, Cambodia The Forbidden City, China Mont-St.-Michel, France St. Paul’s Cathedral, England
Arc de Triomphe, France The Golden Pavilion, Japan Neuschwanstein Castle, Germany St. Peter’s Basilica and the Sistine Chapel, Italy
Borobudur, Indonesia The Great Buddha, Japan Palace of Versailles, France Shwedagon Pagoda, Myanmar
Chartres Cathedral, France The Great Wall of China, China The Pantheon, Italy Stonehenge, England
Christ the Redeemer Statue, Brazil Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain The Parthenon and the Acropolis, Greece Sydney Opera House, Australia
CN Tower, Canada Hagia Sophia, Turkey Petra, Jordan The Taj Mahal, India
The Colosseum, Italy Houses of Parliament, England Pompeii, Italy The Temple at Karnak, Egypt
The Dome of the Rock, Israel The Kaaba and Al-Haram Mosque, Saudi Arabia Potala Palace, China The Terra-cotta Army, China
Easter Island Statues, Chile Krak des Chevaliers, Syria The Pyramids of Giza and the Great Sphinx, Egypt
Edinburgh Castle, Scotland The Kremlin and Red Square, Russia Pyramids of the Sun and Moon at Teotihuacán, Mexico


To learn more about other landmarks and vacation destinations, see:



Jerry Camarillo Dunn, Jr., has worked with the National Geographic Society for more than 20 years, starting as a staff editor, writer, and columnist at Traveler magazine, then writing travel guides. His latest work is National Geographic Traveler: San Francisco. Dunn’s Smithsonian Guide to Historic America: The Rocky Mountain States has sold more than 100,000 copies. His travel pieces appear in newspapers such as the Chicago Tribune and The Boston Globe. Jerry Dunn's stories have won three Lowell Thomas Awards from the Society of American Travel Writers -- the highest honor in the field. He also wrote and hosted a pilot episode for a travel show produced by WGBH, Boston's public television station.