Chemical-based Products: DEET or Picaridin
Although they might not have the best reputation, products that contain the chemicals DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) or picaridin (KBR 3023) are the most effective insect repellents. While DEET is not a carcinogen, DEET products get a bad rap because long-term exposure may cause moodiness, insomnia and impaired cognitive function [source: Peterson]. Studies have shown that after high concentrations of continued exposure, DEET can cause hypertrophy of the liver and kidneys as well as stimulation of the central nervous system which can cause tremors and seizures [source: Extonet]. DEET products also have the potential to damage the water supply. DEET can not only harm aquatic life-forms, but it can also enter the drinking supply as runoff if farmers mishandle the product. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)monitors DEET products and only approves those that are effective and won't cause you or the environment damage.
Citing numerous scientific studies, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention asserts that DEET products provide the longest-lasting protection against insects [source: CDC]. Depending on the amount of DEET in a product, it can repel insects for an average of three to eight hours [source: EPA].
Here's a guide for the length of time for the effectiveness of various DEET concentrations:
- 23.8 percent = 5 hours protection
- 20 percent = 4 hours protection
- 6.65 percent = 2 hours protection
- 4.75 percent = 1 hour of protection
Related HowStuffWorks Articles
- How does bug-repellent clothing work?
- How DEET Works
- How Bear Spray Works
- How Ultralight Backpacking Works
- How to Start a Fire Without a Match
- Are humans wired to survive?
- How to Avoid Hypothermia
- How to Find Water in the Wild
- How to Build a Shelter
- How the Boy Scouts Work
- How the Girl Scouts Work
- How Spelunking Works
- How the Sierra Club Works
- "Bug Repellent Safety." MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia.http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001969.htm
- Cook, Gareth. "On the trail of new scents that can repel mosquitoes." The Boston Globe. Sept. 11, 2006.http://www.boston.com/news/globe/health_science/articles/2006/09/11/target_mosquitoes/
- DeGaborak, Anna. "Natural Mosquito Repellent." Buzzle. Dec. 19, 2007.http://www.buzzle.com/articles/natural-mosquito-repellent-a-natural-barrier-against-mosquitoes.html
- "DEET." Extonet. Cornell University. October 1997.http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/carbaryl-dicrotophos/deet-ext.html
- "Fight the Bite of the Hated Mosquito." Orkin.http://www.orkin.com/press-room/fight-the-bite-of-the-hated-mosquito
- "Insect Repellent." MD Travel Health.http://www.mdtravelhealth.com/index.php?sub=4&illness=insect_repellents
- "The Insect Repellent DEET." Environmental Protection Agency.http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/factsheets/chemicals/deet.htm
- "Insect Repellent Use and Safety." The Centers for Disease Control.http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/qa/insect_repellent.htm
- "p-Menthane-3,8-diol (011550) Fact Sheet." Environmental Protection Agency. April 2000.http://www.epa.gov/oppbppd1/biopesticides/ingredients/factsheets/factsheet_011550.htm
- "Permethrin Facts." Environmental Protection Agency.http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/REDs/factsheets/permethrin_fs.htm
- Peterson, Josh. "5 Eco-Friendly Way to Repel Mosquitoes." Planet Green: Discovery. June 3, 2008.http://planetgreen.discovery.com/food-health/eco-friendly-mosquito-repellent.html
HowStuffWorks looks at the popularity of hiking in the U.S.